क्या मोदी सरकार के FRDI बिल के खौफ से खाली हो रहे हैं एटीएम?

देश के कई राज्यों में करेंसी संकट की खबरों के बीच रिजर्व बैंक ऑफ इंडिया ने माना है कि कुछ राज्यों में यह संकट कैश की कमी के चलते देखने को मिल रहा है. इससे निपटने के लिए रिजर्व बैंक ने अंतरराज्यीय समिति का गठन किया है जो अगले तीन दिन में अन्य राज्यों से कैश संकट वाले राज्यों में कैश पहुंचाने का काम करेगी. हालांकि आरबीआई की इस दलील के इतर रिजर्व बैंक ऑफिसर कन्फेडरेशन ने दावा किया है कि देश में 30 से 40 फीसदी कैश की कमी है और यह कमी रिजर्व बैंक द्वारा लगातार डिजिटल इकोनॉमी का दबाव बनाने से हुई है.

अधिकारियों के इस संगठन ने दावा किया है कि देशभर में लोगों में केन्द्र सरकार द्वारा प्रस्तावित एफआरडीआई बिल का खौफ है, लिहाजा लोग बैंक में पैसा जमा करने की जगह कैश अपने पास रखने को तरजीह दे रहे हैं. इस संगठन के मुताबिक रिजर्व बैंक ऑफ इंडिया डिजिटल इकोनॉमी बनाने के लिए कैश की राशनिंग कर रहा है जिससे कई राज्यों में कैश का संकट देखने को मिल रहा है.

सर्कुलेशन में 30 से 40 फीसदी करेंसी की कमी 2000 रुपये और 500 रुपये की करेंसी सर्कुलेशन से बाहर जाने के चलते पैदा हुई है. इस तथ्य से यह साफ है कि देशभर में लोगों को बैंकिंग व्यवस्था में संभावित बदलावों का डर पनप रहा है और लोग अधिक से अधिक पैसा बड़ी करेंसी में घर पर रखने को तरजीह दे रहे हैं.

क्या है एफआरडीआई बिल

प्रस्तावित एफआरडीआई बिल के जरिए केन्द्र सरकार सभी वित्तीय संस्थाओं जैसे बैंक, इंश्योरेंस कंपनी और अन्य वित्तीय संगठनों का इंसॉल्वेंसी और बैंकरप्सी कोड के तहत उचित निराकरण करना चाह रही है. इस बिल को कानून बनाकर केन्द्र सरकार बीमार पड़ी वित्तीय कंपनियों को संकट से उबारने की कोशिश करेगी. इस बिल की जरूरत 2008 के वित्तीय संकट के बाद महसूस की गई जब कई हाई-प्रोफाइल बैंकरप्सी देखने को मिली थी. इसके बाद से केन्द्र सरकार ने जनधन योजना और नोटबंदी जैसे फैसलों से लगातार कोशिश की है कि ज्यादा से ज्यादा लोग बैंकिंग व्यवस्था के दायरे में रहें. इसके चलते यह बेहद जरूरी हो जाता है कि बैंकिंग व्यवस्था में शामिल हो चुके लोगों को बैंक या वित्तीय संस्था के डूबने की स्थिति में अपने पैसों की सुरक्षा की गारंटी रहे.

 एफआरडीआई बिल का प्रमुख प्रावधान

इस बिल में एक रेजोल्यूशन कॉरपोरेशन का प्रावधान है जिसे डिपॉजिट इंश्योरेंस और क्रेडिट गारंटी कॉरपोरेशन की जगह खड़ा किया जाएगा. यह रेजोल्यूशन कॉरपोरेशन वित्तीय संस्थाओं के स्वास्थ्य की निगरानी करेगा और उनके डूबने की स्थिति में उसे बचाने का प्रयास करेगा. वहीं जब वित्तीय संस्था का डूबना तय रहेगा तो ऐसी स्थिति में उनकी वित्तीय देनदारी का समाधान करेगा. गौरतलब है कि रेजोल्यूशन कॉरपोरेशन का एक अहम काम ग्राहकों को डिपॉजिट इंश्योरेंस देने का भी है हालांकि अभी इस इंश्योरेंस की सीमा निर्धारित नहीं की गई है.

क्यों है एफआरडीआई बिल से डर

एफआरडीआई बिल के जरिए रेजोल्यूशन कॉरपोरेशन को फेल होने वाली संस्था को उबारने के लिए (बेल इन) कदम उठाने का भी अधिकार है. जहां बेल आउट के जरिए सरकार जनता के पैसे को सुस्त पड़ी अर्थव्यवस्था में निवेश करती है जिससे उसे उबारा जा सके वहीं बेल इन के जरिए बैंक ग्राहकों के पैसे से संकट में पड़े बैंक को उबारने का काम किया जाता है. एफआरडीआई बिल के इसी प्रावधान के चलते आम लोगों में डर है कि यदि उनका बैंक विफल होता है तो उन्हें अपनी गाढ़ी कमाई से हाथ धोना पड़ सकता है. गौरतलब है कि मौजूदा प्रावधान के मुताबिक किसी बैंक के डूबने की स्थिति में ग्राहक को उसके खाते में जमा कुल रकम में महज 1 लाख रुपये की गारंटी रहती है और बाकी पैसा लौटाने के लिए बैंक बाध्य नहीं रहते. प्रस्तावित एफआरडीआई बिल में फिलहाल सरकार ने गांरटी की इस रकम पर अभी कोई फैसला नहीं लिया है.

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